1872 - 1970

British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, and social critic. At various points in his life he considered himself a liberal, a socialist, and a pacifist. Russell led the British "revolt against idealism" in the early 20th century. He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy. He was a prominent anti-war activist; he championed anti-imperialism and went to prison for his pacifism during World War I. In 1950 Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought."

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